The Constitution of India is the supreme law of your land, which crucial in the governance of India. The Constitution of India was enacted on 26th November, 1949 and was adopted on 26th January, 1950. The Draftsmen of the Indian Constitution took brainwave from Constitutions in excess of the world and integrated their Smartness into the Indian Constitution. For example A quasi-federal kind of government (a federal system with a solid central government) is taken from Constitution of Canada, Part III on Fundamental Rights is partly derived from the American Constitution, Part 1V on Directive Principles of State Policy from the Irish Constitution and Part IV-A Fundamental duties is obtained from Russian constitution. Constitution of India defines the main organs of the government that is the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary, not only its power but also demarcates the accountability. It regulates the relationship between the different organs and between the government and the anyone. They also make the associated with control between them therefore no body can interfere the function of other. If any of organ overstep its powers was not healthy for democracy.
The Preamble of the Constitution
We the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India best suited Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to it's citizens.
Justice, social, economic and political
Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship
Equality of status and of opportunity
and to advertise among each of them
Fraternity assuring the dignity of the victim and the unity and integrity from the Nation
In Our Constituent Assembly this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do hereby Adopt, Enact And Give to Ourselves This Constitution
The Preamble to our Constitution serves two purposes
It indicates the source from the fact that the Constitution derives its authority
It also states the objects, the fact that the Constitution seeks to establish and prompt.
The first words of the Preamble - 'We the people' - indicate that power is vested their hands for the people of India. Parliament represents every of In india. It has every to be able to rewrite a law or constitutional provision. But who would ensure that the law does not violate soul of the Constitution? The courts end up being do the actual. Therefore, judicial review is an important part any kind of democratic system . The constitution of India will be the supreme law of the land. The framers with the Indian constitution were also aware among the fact whenever the constitution was so flexible it would be like a flying wings of judgment against party therefore they adopt the middle course that is, is actually important to neither too rigid to admit necessary amendment, nor too flexible for undesirable swings. According to Constitution, Parliament and State Legislature in India gain the power noticable the laws within their respective legal system. This power is not absolute in the. The constitution vests in judiciary, the ability to adjudicate upon the constitutional validity associated with the principles. If a laws made by parliament or state legislature violates any provision with the constitution, the Supreme Court has opportunity to declare this law invalid or ultra virus. The actual process of judicial scrutiny of legislative acts is termed a Judicial Review therefore bad judiciary is the Guardian, Protector and Watchdog of the constitution.
Judiciary vs. Legislature (Parliament)
The framers of our Constitution took infinite care to provide a great independent and impartial judiciary as the interpreter of the Constitution so the custodian of the rights with the citizens while using process of judicial review, which affords the mandate towards the judiciary to interpret the laws however it is not to make them, nor to take a nap general norms of behaviour for brand new or figure out upon public policy. Idea is 'judicial review' without being 'judicial activism' which is of recent coinage and extends, as one finds, much beyond program review. The phenomenon of the judiciary versus the legislature is not new to Indian constitution History. Indira Gandhi designed series of attempts through 24th, 25th and 42nd constitutional amendments to establish Supremacy of Parliament over the judiciary. She even attemptedto dishearten top judiciary by appointing a junior judge as the chief justice superseding senior most judges. The matter could be settled a concern . accent with the 'Doctrine of Basic Structure' in the Keshavananda Bharati case of 1973. Each video of this judgement undeniable fact that the Indian constitution has certain basic features, which hold a transcendental position and which cannot be altered by either parliament or Top court. This judgement was able to establish supremacy in the constitution but only with respect to its 'Doctrine of Basic Structure'. History of Basic Structure - Concern whether fundamental rights can be amended under article 368 came for consideration all of the Supreme Court in Shankari Prasad case where the initial constitutional amendment act, 1951 which insert Art 31-A and 31-B is challenged in scenario. Supreme Court says that parliaments have a power to amend the constitution (including fundamental rights) under Article 368 and same view has consumed Sajjan Singh case can. In Golaknath case validity of 17th constitutional amendment was questioned. The Supreme Court ruled that parliament had no power to amend Part III for the constitution and overruled its earlier decision in Shankari Prasad and Sajjan Singh. To avoid Golaknath case decision parliament enacted 24th constitutional tweak. The Supreme Court realized the theory of basic structure in Keshavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala then. The Supreme Court revealed that Article 368 did not enable Parliament to switch the basic structure or framework of the Constitution and parliament wasnrrrt able to use its amending powers under Article368 to 'damage', 'emasculate', 'destroy', 'abrogate', 'change' or 'alter' the 'basic structure' or framework belonging to the constitution. Choice is not very close a landmark in the evolution of constitutional law, but a turning part of constitutional story. In Indira Gandhi versus. Raj Narayan the Top court applied totally blocked . of basic structure and struck down cl.(4) of article 329-A,which was inserted by the 39th Amendment in 1975 on ground level that it was beyond the amending power of the parliament as it destroyed the 'basic feature' of the constitution. The amendment came to be to the jurisdiction almost all courts including SC, over disputes surrounding elections among the Prime Minister of Pakistan. In Minerva Mills case the Supreme court by majority by 4 to 1 majority struck down clauses(4) and (5) of the article 368 inserted by 42nd Amendment, on top of the ground these kind of clauses destroyed the essential feature of your basic structure of the constitution. Ended up being ruled by court if you have a limited amending power is a basic feature of the Constitution.
In Indra Sawhney v. union of India properly known as Mandal Commission case Supreme court say some important rule with experience with Reservation:-
There shall not be reservation in promotion.
In nevertheless Reservation shall not exceed 50%.
But in 77th & 81st amendment slap the Mandal Commission & modified the decision of the commission. In 77th amendment 1995 by this in Article 16th new clause been recently added that's the Art 16(4)(a) which provided reservation is offered in promotion or in 81st amendment Art 16 is again amended through this new clause is added i've.e. 16(4)(b) which provided that in nevertheless Reservation may exceed. In which shown that how the parliament amends the constitution beyond his scope and interrupt the democracy and also the judiciary use his power, protect the democracy.
Judiciary sixth is v. Media
Media will be the fourth pillar of the Indian democracy. Media may be the best by to communicate the people and also discuss the current problem. Freedom of the media is indeed an integral part of the freedom of expression and essential requisite of a democratic arrangement. The Indian Constitution has granted this freedom in application form of Fundamental Right. The media, is actually obligated to respect the rights of individual, can be obligated to within the framework of legal principles and regulations. These legal/statutes have been framed signifies minimum standards and don't intend to detract from higher standards of protection to the freedom of sentence. Issue whether the media is crossing limits in commenting on celebrities and encroaching on the privacy of public figures, blackmailing those in authority and promoting trial by media in cases pending consideration before not all courts of the us. Media also create bias opinion in the people involving many times. There seems to be some discomfort in the judiciary by the media coverage of court proceedings. According to an IANS(Indo-Asian News Service) report The Hoot carried, the Supreme Court strongly deprecated media interference with plan of justice by publishing one-sided articles on cases pending within courts. For example-. When disposing a bail petition filed in a dowry death case, a bench of Justices N. Santosh Hegde and S.B. Sinha expressed distress in an article appearing in a Kolkata magazine titled 'DOOMED BY DOWRY' and described it as being a trial along with media. Write-up was based solely on an interview however parents of having a woman who committed suicide because of alleged harassment by in-laws. Noting how the facts narrated in content are most likely going to be used during the trial, the judges claimed that this type of article would interfere your administration of justice. U . s . has a brief history of confrontations between the judiciary and the legislatures. There've been several skirmishes in between the judiciary and also the media that still have not reached an area of confrontation, mainly due to judicial constraint. Soon after the jailing of Arundhati Roy for contempt of court, some editors used intemperate language against the judiciary and called for your dissolution. The tendency for this media to hijack judicial business to get a constant trait and must cause public concern. Like those on already delivered its judgment in the truth of Paritala Ravi, a Telugu Desam Party leader in faction-ridden Rayalaseema of Andhra Pradesh, even simply because the CBI has just begun its investigation. Minutes after Ravi's murder outside of the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) office in Anantapur, TV tickers were identifying the killer for a person serving a term in Charlapalli jail to earlier attack on Ravi in Hyderabad's Jubilee Mountain tops. Newspapers carried scores of stories with fiction becoming main ingredient, dragging the names of the chief minister's son and common history of a director-general of police. From embarrassment even before a CBI team began its investigations. Freedom of expression is not much a divine perfectly. It comes with several riders quit be found both within Constitution, the Indian Penal Code more than one other regulation. That right is using the respect the media extends some other sections for this society. An ago, India Today sought and obtained permission from an additional session's judge to interview gangster Babloo Srivastava cooling his heels in Tihar jail. The jail authorities successfully drawn the Supreme court against the grant of permission. Justices G.B. Pattanaik and B.B. Shah ruled that the press could not have an unfettered in order to interview is just about the trial prisoner .
As stated above media will be the fourth pillar or democracy it is anticipated form media to help other pillar i.e. Executive, Judiciary & Legislature because when one pillar any kind of building is not able to support it the whole building get collapsed hence it expected that all these organ of the government should go hand in mind
The Constitution has for you to become changed at every interval of one's time. Nobody can say that this is the final. A constitution which static can be a constitution which ultimately is a big hurdle in the trail of the progress of the united states. And this alteration can do by the way of Efficiencies. Provisions for amendment belonging to the constitution manufactured with a view to overcome the difficulties which may encounter in future in the important of the constitution. Time is not static; it's going on changing .The social, economic and political conditions of the people go on changing so the constitutional law of the country must also change in order toward it to varying economy mixed with needs, changing life of those. If no provisions were made for amendment within the constitution, the folks would have recourse to extra constitutional method like revolution to alter the constitution. The framers of the Indian constitution were anxious to possess a document might grow by using a growing nation, adapt itself to shifting circumstances of your respective growing many people.
According to Abraham Lincoln, democracy meant a Government of the people, along with people of course the regular people. So in democratic nation whenever any law went by parliament violates any provision of constitution or removes any fundamental rights in the person, the Supreme Court has right and electricity to strike down that law or federal act. According to me this jurisdiction of Supreme court is essential for protection of basic associated with the metabolism. That the power of Judicial Review over legislative action vested within High Courts under Article 226 in addition the Supreme court under Article 32 of your Constitution is an integral and essential feature of the Constitution, constituting part of its basic structure . Judiciary has no personal grudge over additional body/authorities he can do their duty. She can only use there power where a true a need and protect the constitution as well as democracy.
1.Brayan A Garner's 'Black's Law Dictionary', West Group, 7th Edition 1999.
2.D.D.Basu's, 'Shorter Constitution of India'13th Edition 2002, Wadhwa &Co. Nagpur,
3.M.P.Jain, 'Indian Constitutional Laws'5th Edition 2004, Wadhwa & Co. Nagpur.